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Our Distinctive A+R Style

+ 3 nights in your choice of hotel
+ 3 breakfasts
+ Roundtrip airport transfers with your own private car and driver
+ In-depth Privately Guided sightseeing with our experienced Egyptologist; all entrance fees are included.
+ All hotel taxes & service charges

Show all itinerary details

Upon arrival, you’ll be warmly greeted by our staff and assisted with immigration formalities – from obtaining your visa through baggage claim and customs. Then we’ll take you to your choice of hotel: Delight in your Nile-view guest room at our 5-star boutique property, the Kempinski Nile Hotel. Or check in to the landmark Oberoi Mena House where jasmine-scented gardens offer views of the Great Pyramids.


Our Signature Privately Guided Sightseeing

Kempinski Nile Hotel - Cairo, Egypt

After breakfast, your personal car and driver will take you on a full-day Privately Guided Tour of the renowned monuments in and around Cairo. With our expert Egyptologist at your side throughout, your day begins on the Giza Plateau where you’ll gaze in wonder upon the Great Pyramids and the Sphinx. From the Citadel, a medieval fortification set on a hill, you’ll have fine views of the city. Here in this historic quarter of Cairo, you’ll also see the impressive Muhammed Ali Mosque, built in the mid 1800’s. Of course, no visit to Cairo would be complete without the renowned Egyptian Museum of Antiquities; with fascinating facts and colorful stories from our Egyptologist, your guided discovery of these ancient artifacts will deepen your understanding and insight into the Age of the Pharaohs.  Meals B

Enjoy this free day to explore at your own pace. Meals B


Depart Cairo

Your car and driver await this morning to escort you to the airport for your onward flight. Meals B


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Date RangeFrom
09 September 2021 - 30 October 2021$1,299
Kempinski Nile Hotel$1,299
Call for Details PhoneRequest a Quote Booking
31 October 2021 - 21 December 2021$1,299
Kempinski Nile Hotel$1,299
Call for Details PhoneRequest a Quote Booking
22 December 2021 - 31 December 2021$1,399
Kempinski Nile Hotel$1,399
Call for Details PhoneRequest a Quote Booking
01 January 2022 - 06 January 2022$1,399
Kempinski Nile Hotel$1,399
Call for Details PhoneRequest a Quote Booking
07 January 2022 - 31 March 2022$1,299
Kempinski Nile Hotel$1,299
Call for Details PhoneRequest a Quote Booking
01 April 2022 - 30 April 2022$1,299
Kempinski Nile Hotel$1,299
Call for Details PhoneRequest a Quote Booking
01 May 2022 - 09 September 2022$1,399
Kempinski Nile Hotel$1,399
Call for Details PhoneRequest a Quote Booking
10 September 2022 - 29 October 2022$1,299
Kempinski Nile Hotel$1,299
Call for Details PhoneRequest a Quote Booking
30 October 2022 - 31 December 2022$1,399
Kempinski Nile Hotel$1,399
Call for Details PhoneRequest a Quote Booking

Prices are per person, double occupancy, and may vary during holidays and trade shows.

About Your Journey

Passports + Visas
American citizens will need to present a valid passport upon entry into Egypt. Passports must be valid for six (6) months after the completion of your stay. It is your sole responsibility to secure and/or pay for any and all visas (reciprocity fees, affidavits, immunizations, etc. that are required to be permitted entry into each destination). Egypt requires visas for US citizens which may be obtained prior to your departure from the United States or purchased upon arrival at Cairo Airport for $25 per person (the fee is expected to increase to $60 per person at an unknown date). It is a very simple procedure. After exiting the aircraft, you simply go directly to the bank located in the passport control waiting area and purchase your visa. You will need to pay in US$ cash. 

Visas and entry requirements can change without notice, so it is important that you check the U.S. State Department website well in advance of your travel date to ensure you procure the proper documentation for your travel. For up to date visa requirements US citizens should visit Visitors from countries other than the United States should check on their specific entry requirements with the nearest Egyptian consular office.

Now is a good time to assemble and check your travel documents, then keep them together in a safe, accessible area of your home. If you keep your passport in a bank safe deposit, retrieve it now to avoid a last-minute rush, and double-check the expiration date!

Your Health
Recommended inoculations for travel may change and you should consult your practitioner for current recommendations before your upcoming journey. It is your responsibility to ensure that you meet all health entry requirements, obtain the recommended inoculations, take all recommended medication, and follow all medical advice in relation to your trip. Inoculation requirements can be found on the Center for Disease Control (CDC) website at Also check the World Health Organization (WHO) website before you travel internationally.

Medical supplies including CPAP machines for sleep apnea can be brought as an additional carry-on with most airlines.  If you are traveling with a CPAP machine, please let Alexander+Roberts know in advance and consider bringing a backup battery in case of inconsistent electricity supply. Distilled water is available in most destinations. Make sure you have all appropriate adaptors, although newer machines have universal power supplies that can adapt to various voltages. Bring extra supplies (especially cushions) and replacement parts as repairing the machine while travelling may not be possible.

Physical Activity
 Ancient sites worldwide were constructed well before building codes or the existence of safety and accessibility standards. And in order to maintain the architectural and historical integrity that attracts visitors in the first place, many of the sites have been intentionally left in their natural state. As such, you will encounter uneven terrain, irregular steps, and a lack of handrails, barriers, ramps and cautionary warning signs where you might expect them back home. Therefore, it is extremely important for you to take great care and caution when exploring these sites. Pay attention to all instructions and do not wander away from your guide, especially off designated paths into unmarked terrain. When exploring on your own, heed all regulations, be extra mindful of your surroundings and note any conditions that could increase the risks (poor visibility, wet slippery surfaces, etc).

For travelers with mobility issues or physical challenges, be prepared for less accessibility than we enjoy in the United States. Hotels may be limited in the provisions made for such travelers and some do not have elevators. Airports are not always fully equipped with modern jetways, and ramps for wheelchairs are often absent.

We regret that we cannot provide individual assistance for guests who need mobility assistance.  Nor can we ensure that local vehicles will be wheelchair-equipped. For these reasons, a qualified companion must accompany guests who need such assistance.
Physical limitations requiring special attention and/or equipment must be reported when making reservations. We will make reasonable attempts to accommodate special needs but cannot provide individual assistance.  Should issues become apparent on tour that impact other guests, we may require individual assistance be obtained or require the guest to return home early at the guest’s expense. 

Protecting Your Vacation
As you prepare and get excited for your upcoming journey, it’s not fun to think about what would happen if you had to cancel or interrupt your trip. The best way to eliminate that worry is with a good travel protection plan. Travel protection plans can help protect you in the event of loss of non-refundable trip deposits and payments that result from cancellation or trip interruption (due to a covered reason such as injury or illness before or during the trip). It also helps with reimbursement for medical emergency costs (including very costly medical evacuation costs), missed connections and baggage loss. There are many good plans out there, and we’re happy to offer a very comprehensive Travel Protection Plan - including “Cancel for Any Reason” benefits. You can find complete information online:

Your International Flights
If you have not already made your international flight arrangements, you should consider taking advantage of our excellent relationships with outstanding international carriers including Lufthansa, British Airways, United Airlines and Emirates. We can book your air in Economy, Premium Economy or Business Class with advice on seat availability - and even advance seat assignments on many carriers and routes. Booking your international air with A+R will allow us to directly assist you with any flight disruptions, delays or cancellations while on-tour.

Personalized Service… Anytime you Need it!
If you have questions about your upcoming journey or wish to make any changes such as adding extra nights, special sightseeing or transfers, please call your travel agent. You can also contact our Travel Concierge, Melanie Delworth, at 800-678-7942, Ext. 154, Or send her an email with your question or request:

For travel assistance during your journey, we’ve included our OnCall International service… It’s complimentary 24/7! Just call 888-771-8409…. Anytime, we’re here to assist you

A Word about Hotels
As in other parts of the world, check-in time for most hotels is around 3:00PM and check-out time is typically 11AM. Should you arrive early to find that your room is not yet ready, the hotel will likely be more than happy to store your luggage securely for a few hours. That leaves you unencumbered to explore a bit at your own pace - or to relax with a cup of tea or coffee either in the lobby or at a nearby cafe.

Similarly, if you have a late departure flight, hotels will store your luggage after you’ve checked-out, leaving you free to explore and relax until it’s time to go to the airport. Depending upon how busy they are, hotels may allow you to occupy your room for another hour or two without charge; check with the front desk to determine if this is possible for your day of departure.

If early check-in or late check-out is required, advance arrangements can usually be confirmed for the cost of an additional night. Please notify us or your travel agent if you wish to confirm either.

Egypt has distinct winter and summer seasons, with short springs and falls. The average high temperature in Cairo for example exceeds 90°F during the months between May and September. Since there is little rain and the air is very dry, the summer heat can be quite bearable, especially with the sharp drop in temperature after sundown. Air conditioning is widespread. Given Egypt’s hot and dry climate, we strongly recommend that you drink plenty of bottled water during the trip. In the winter, daytime temperatures can still approach 80°F, with nighttime lows dipping into the 40s. Although winter brings some rain, most days are bright and sunny.

Money Matters
The Egyptian Pound (coins are called “piastres”) is the national currency and is easily exchanged for US dollars. There is a 24-hour currency exchange at Cairo International Airport terminals, and money can also be changed at your hotel and banks. Save your receipts so that you can exchange any remaining pounds into US dollars prior to your return flight. Traveler’s checks may be cashed at your hotel or banks but your passport will be needed. Exchange rates of course can vary widely but one US dollar roughly equals about 17 pounds (EGP).

US dollars circulate widely in Egypt so you may wish to bring a small supply of low-denomination bills ($1, $5s, and $10s) for incidental tipping and purchases along the way.

We recommend that before you travel you inform both your bank and your credit card company which countries you will be visiting. It is also a good idea to inquire about fees for transactions abroad. If you plan to use your ATM or credit card, we suggest that you confirm with your bank prior to your departure that your ATM or credit card and PIN number will work in Egypt. Major credit cards are accepted in hotels, in some larger shops, in restaurants, at carpet stores and other locations frequented by international visitors. If you do not see your credit card’s logo on the establishment’s door, then be sure to ask if credit cards are accepted! At many smaller shops and at the souks, you will need cash to make your purchase.

For your on-tour convenience, we have included all gratuities except for your Egyptologist Guide. This includes drivers, baggage porters and restaurant staff for all included meals; certainly, if any of these services are exceptional and go above-and-beyond, then feel free to tip additionally.

For your Egyptologist Guide, many of our guests find it helpful to have some guidelines; in that spirit, we recommend tipping them $10 to $15 per person, per day.

Although not included in your Tour Fare, please remember that this gratuity is always at your discretion. It’s appreciated as recognition for excellent service, but whether you tip, and how much, is entirely up to you.

When you’re out enjoying meals and activities that are not part of your A+R itinerary, here are tipping guidelines in accordance with local practices:

•    Upscale restaurants: A service charge of 10% is appropriate.
•    Spa Services: Add 10% to 15 %.
•    Taxis: Tips are not expected by taxi drivers.

For any gratuities, we suggest you tip in the local currency. But if you only have US Dollars, they will be graciously accepted.

Please be aware that tipping for everything in Egypt is a way of life, and you may see your Egyptologist Guide tipping on your behalf. If you wish to provide additional tips along your journey (even though we’ve prepaid them) we recommend that you keep one-pound and 50-piastres notes handy.

Electric current is 220V at 50 Hz AC and most outlets support two round-pin plugs. An adapter plug and a converter may be necessary to charge your electronic devices, and are usually available from the front desk. For more information on plugs and sockets, review the information at:

Internet and Phone calls
If you plan to bring your cell phone when you travel, please check with your carrier to ensure that your plan covers international calls and/or mobile data from the countries you will visit on your trip and whether there may be money saving plans available from your carrier that can be arranged in advance. Alternatively, local prepaid SIM cards for your phone are usually available at the airport where you arrive and can be used to tap into local service providers. Wi-fi is available at many hotels either complimentary or for a fee. Waiting until you have Wi-Fi access allows you to use email and other applications without using mobile data. Check with the front desk upon check in regarding access details.

If you need to place an international call from your hotel room, please check first with the Front Desk about their rates. Hotels often contract with outside vendors to provide direct-dial service for overseas calls – and the rates can be unexpectedly high!

The dialing code for Egypt is +20; you’ll need to prefix the local number with this dialing code when calling from outside of Egypt.

Is the Water Safe to Drink?
Do not drink tap water in Egypt but soft drinks, tea, beer, wine and bottled water are fine. Bottled water is readily available and you can choose from bottled water with or without carbonation. Your Nile ship uses the latest technology in water purification for food preparation and use onboard.

Meal Time!
Egyptian food is tasty and varied. An Egyptian meal usually starts with a broad array of individual plates and appetizers (called “mezze”) which is followed by a main course. Eggplant, tomatoes, chicken, kebabs and fish (from the Red Sea) are often part of the meal. Breads are varied and very delicious, often served warm from the oven. We advise all Americans to drink only bottled water, soft drinks, tea or beer. Wine is expensive. Hotels have a variety of restaurants serving a broad range of local and international cuisine. Street food is not recommended.

Ramadan is the holy month during which the Islamic world commemorates the revelation of the Holy Quran and all Muslims are required to fast from dawn to dusk. In 2021 Ramadan begins at dusk on April 12th and continues for 30 days (it begins at dusk on April 2nd in 2022). Eating, drinking and smoking in public areas during daylight hours is strictly prohibited throughout this month. Alcohol is not served during daylight hours, but is available in licensed bars and restaurants after sunset for non-Muslims. All hotels we work with make concessions for visitors and keep a restaurant open during the day that is only available to resident guests. During Ramadan, live entertainment, loud music and dancing are prohibited and conservative dress is expected to be worn in public. Many shops and stores open for a few hours in the morning and then resume business after sunset, staying open until well after midnight. Sunset marks the breaking of the fast when families and friends get together to enjoy their Iftar (“breakfast” in Arabic). Large Iftar tents, where people come together to break the fast with water and dates, are a common sight. Most restaurants both within and outside hotels offer Iftar specials.

About Photography
Some sites and museums restrict photography, in particular the use of flash, and may require additional photo permits which are sold on site. Always check with your tour guide or site officials when in doubt. It is common courtesy to ask permission before you photograph local residents.

Egypt’s Famous Souks + Handcrafts
Egypt is a shopper’s paradise, with great prices on a wide variety of gifts and souvenirs. Carpets and rugs, brass and copper, inlaid boxes and chess boards, leather, clothing, papyrus, gold and silver, perfumes and spices are just some of the things that will tempt you in shops and souks (bazaars). You might consider bringing an extra bag to pack your purchases for your return. In the souks, it is expected that you will bargain. Prices are inflated to allow for this traditional bargaining, which is a way of life here.

Enjoy your shopping, but keep a few precautions in mind. We strongly recommend that you avoid objects that appear to be ancient artifacts. Many so-called artifacts are anything but old. In addition, the export of genuine ancient relics is strictly controlled so that cultural treasures do not leave the country. Animal skins, things made with tropical bird feathers, and similar items should also be avoided. Some could be made from endangered species, and their export (and import into the US) is illegal. Buying only from reputable shops will help you to avoid problems.

Local Transportation
For American travelers, taxis are the most effective and convenient form of transportation in Cairo and other major towns. It is safe to hail a taxi on the street or from a hotel taxi stand or other taxi stands. However, since English is not widely spoken by taxi drivers in Egypt, we recommend that a taxi be secured at your hotel. Ask the concierge to write your destination on a card in Arabic to show to the driver and carry your hotel card with you for your return trip. Should you want a car for a longer period, the hotel can make such arrangements for you. 

Due to overwhelming traffic and congestion in cities such as Cairo, Luxor, Alexandria and Aswan, many of the sightseeing excursions, transfers and flights on this program are scheduled for early in the morning.  This allows us to avoid congestion, provide more time visiting the great sights of Egypt and allows for a much more comfortable experience for our clients, as visits and touring begin before the temperatures reach the peak of the day.  

Conversing with the Locals
Modern standard Arabic is the official language of Egypt, but you will find that almost everyone you encounter will have a working knowledge of English.

Local Time
The local time in Egypt is 7 hours ahead of New York.

A Note about Traveling with Minors
Many countries currently require documentary evidence of a relationship between minors traveling with an adult. Although Egypt is not one of them, we strongly recommend that parents traveling alone with a minor carry a notarized letter from the absent parent authorizing the trip, regardless of whether the parent is married or divorced. Never-married parents, parents whose spouse has died, and parents who have been granted sole legal custody of children are encouraged to carry notarized proof of their status, including death certificate where appropriate. Grandparents traveling with grandchildren and adults traveling with children who are not their own should carry letters of authorization from both parents of the children. It is wise to also carry the child’s birth certificate with the original seal. Please visit the state department’s website if you plan to travel with a minor.

Packing Advice to Get You Started
People dress a bit more conservatively in the Middle East than you would in America. Generally, the attire is casual with the emphasis on comfort and convenience. Easy-to-care-for clothing with mix-and-match separates are ideal to prevent the need to bring a lot of clothes. To accommodate the variable weather, you should pack an all-weather jacket, hat and scarf. Hotel and local restaurant dining rooms are casual; along the coast and on the cruise ship, lightweight, casual clothing is most practical. You will want to bring a swimsuit, sun hat and comfortable walking shoes.
Your sightseeing tours include a moderate amount of walking so please pay particular attention to footwear – bring a pair of comfortable walking shoes with firm arch support. Note that cobblestone streets are common in the old towns. Some of the sites included on your program are accessible only on foot; therefore, be prepared for walking. Suitable footwear consists of low-heeled shoes, sneakers, tennis shoes and similar. Don’t forget your sunglasses and sunscreen, and be sure you drink plenty of water during your journey to prevent dehydration.

Consider an easy-to-carry traveling bag
It’s good to have a small bag to carry your daytime needs with you while traveling; a backpack is used by many travelers for this purpose. A water bottle is always handy to have in your traveling pack.

The Essentials
Hotels are well-equipped with tissues and toilet paper; however small packets of facial tissues and a small bottle of hand-sanitizer can be handy for use in public bathrooms. Your hotels and cruise ship will provide fine amenities, including soap and shampoo, but pack your own if you use particular brands. Please bring your own lotions, contact lens solutions, cosmetics and feminine hygiene products. Bring extra prescriptions (packed partially in your hand luggage) as well as cold medicine, aspirin and cures for intestinal troubles. You should also bring a good sunblock lotion with you since high temperatures can intensify the impact of the sun. We recommend 30+ SPF.

Seeing + Capturing your Experiences
Make a complete check of your camera equipment before you leave and make sure you have replacement or rechargeable batteries and additional memory cards.

Camera drones are not allowed for use on our tours as they can detract from the experiences of your fellow travelers. If, however you plan to bring a drone for use in your free time, please pay close attention to the local aviation laws.  Most historic sites and national parks explicitly prohibit the use of personal drones, so it is your own responsibility to acquire any necessary permission and adhere to local laws should you plan on traveling with a drone. 

On-Tour Hunger Pangs
High-protein snacks are good for both the air trip as well as for your activities while traveling: nuts, raisins, granola bars and peanut butter are popular with many of our travelers.

A Few Final Tips
Some handy items we recommend include: an extra pair of glasses, an alarm clock, zip-lock plastic bags, a bottle opener and an English/Arabic dictionary.

Flights within Egypt
Airline tickets for flights within Egypt are handled by our local office in Cairo. They are electronic tickets. A representative from our local office or your local guide in Cairo will advise you of your internal Egypt flight times and give you the electronic ticket copy during your stay in Cairo.

Seats for all internal flights within Egypt are assigned by Egypt Air Cairo and are limited. Seat constraints on flights between Cairo and Luxor may result in very early morning flights. Similarly, Abu Simbel flights are in great demand and may result in late afternoon or early evening return to Cairo. Because the flight situation is so dynamic, final flight itineraries are available only after arrival in Cairo.

Domestic flights within Egypt allow limited carry-on luggage. If your tour includes flights between cities in Egypt, please be prepared to carry no more than one small bag on board with you. You are allowed a total of 44 pounds in baggage (including carry-on) for internal flights. Excess weight may be subject to charges by the airline.

If you decide to not take all of your luggage with you, you may store extra baggage at the hotel until your return to Cairo. You must have an Alexander + Roberts luggage tag with your name and address attached to any luggage that will be staying behind. If you would like to do this, please notify your Tour Manager or local guide and he will assist with this arrangement for you. 

Reminders about Your Baggage
Baggage restrictions vary by airline, and we ask you to review the airlines on your itinerary and review baggage restrictions on their website to determine the maximum number of bags and weights that are allowed.  In Economy, passengers are limited to one bag.  Keep in mind that the flights that are included on your tour are in Economy and are limited to one checked bag with weight limits.  So when packing for your trip, consider the bag and weight restrictions on all of your flights, not just your international arrangements.

Most airlines charge travelers for additional bags and excess weight so we advise you to pack as lightly as possible. Most of our hotels offer laundry services.

TSA Packing Tips
The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) publishes a comprehensive list of items that are Permitted and Prohibited in carry-on and checked baggage. You can find the complete list online at

For vacation travelers, the important thing to remember is that only one small bag of liquids, aerosols, gels, creams and pastes can be in your carry-on bag when you pass through security. Each item is limited to 3.4 ounces (100ml) - and all containers must fit inside a clear, 1-quart sized, zip-top bag. If you have containers that are larger than 3.4 ounces, they must go inside your checked baggage.

If you’re traveling with medication, discuss your travel itinerary with your physician to determine that you obtain any necessary permissions if applicable on controlled/semi-controlled medication. Prescription medication must always be in its original packaging, and accompanied by a copy of the prescription.

Medications, baby formula/food and breast milk are allowed in reasonable quantities exceeding the 3.4-ounce limit, and they do not have to be in a zip-lock bag. You should declare these items at the checkpoint, and keep in mind that TSA Officers may need to inspect them.

Other Recommendations:
•    Jewelry, cash, tablet devices and laptops should be in your carry-on baggage. Tape your business card to the bottom of your laptop for easy identification if it gets separated for inspection.
•    Avoid accessories and jewelry that contain metal as they may set off the metal detector at the check point. This saves having to take them off and put them back on as you pass through security.
•    Wear slip-on shoes that can be easily removed and placed on the conveyor built to be x-rayed at the security check-point.
•    If you wish to place a lock on your checked luggage, it must be of a make and model approved by the TSA.
•    Do not pack wrapped gifts and do not bring wrap gifts to the security check point.

A Few Words about Safety + Security
Arab countries are remarkably safe and the people are very friendly and hospitable. Opportunistic petty crime, such as pick-pocketing and purse snatching, are present in all major cities in the world.  The usual precautions should be taken. Avoid late-night walks along the Nile on your own and be cautious of valuables in crowds. Always ask someone before taking their picture (a tip is expected) and smile and be patient with all Egyptians – you’ll be rewarded with a big smile in return and all the assistance you could imagine.

Traveling abroad is no different than visiting a new city in the United States: use common sense precautions to safeguard your person and your possessions at all times. Remember to wash your hands frequently and use hand-sanitizer.
•    Do not go out and about with your passport unless specifically instructed to do so by your local guides.
•    Keep your extra cash and passport in the in-room safe of your hotel. In the few instances where they are not available, then store these items in the safety deposit box at the front desk.
•    Always make a copy of your passport, credit cards and e-tickets and keep them separate from the originals so that they can be more readily replaced if lost or stolen. Leave extra copies with someone at home who you can reach while traveling. Or consider scanning these documents and emailing them to an address that you can access while abroad.
•    If you don’t already own one, consider investing in a money belt that can be concealed under your clothing. This is a good place to keep the cash and credit cards that you need for personal expenses while sightseeing, shopping and touring.
•    Do not display large amounts of cash in public. Carry your purse with the strap across your chest, not dangling from your shoulder or arm.

These measures will save you countless time and trouble should your credit cards, airline tickets or passport be lost or stolen. 

Out + About in Egypt
The following pages provide a broad overview of the country that refers to many destinations, including places that may not be on your program. But they could be! If anything here entices you to explore more of Egypt, our travel experts can work with you and your travel agent to plan an extension to your program if your itinerary and schedule allow a longer stay.

About Cairo
The capital of Egypt is at the heart of one of the Islamic world’s largest metropolitan areas, a huge metropolis of nearly 19 million residents that is beguiling, maddening, fascinating and overwhelming. It’s also beautiful, crowded, enchanting and polluted. It offers endless contrasts, which add to its exotic and fascinating allure. The city’s contemporary hub is the Tahrir Square, not far from the banks of the Nile River and the Egyptian Museum.

The Egyptian Museum was built in 1902 and now holds the world’s greatest collection of Egyptian artifacts. It offers great insight into ancient Egypt and provides the best context for appreciating your subsequent visits to Egypt’s principal sites and monuments. The ground floor is arranged chronologically, beginning with treasures of the Old Kingdom from five millennia ago. Upstairs the Treasures of Tutankhamen are displayed in two expansive galleries. The famed Royal Mummies Room requires a separate admission charge, which is well worthwhile. The museum is located at Tahrir Square and is open daily from 9:00AM to 7:00PM. During Ramadan it closes at 5:00PM.

Gezira (The Island) is a primarily modern district surrounded by the Nile and connected to the mainland by three bridges, two of which are close to Tahrir Square and the Egyptian Museum. The island, home to the upscale suburb of Zamalik, offers several attractions for the international visitor. The Egyptian Museum of Modern Art (also known as the Gezira Art Center) is part of the National Cultural Center and exhibits paintings and sculptures by 20th-century Egyptian artists. At the southern end of Al Gazirah, the Mukhtar Museum is devoted to the works of internationally-renowned Egyptian sculptor Mahmoud Mukhtar. Both museums are open Tuesday to Sunday from 10:00AM to 1:00PM and 3:00PM to 5:00PM and on Friday from 10:00AM to 12:00PM. The 613-foot Cairo Tower, completed in 1961, offers marvelous views of Cairo and the Nile River. The tower is open daily from 9:00AM to 12:00AM.

Old Cairo – Misr al Qadimah – is a fairly small area which offers a glimpse of Cairo during its medieval glory. Here one can see the remains of ancient Roman and Christian times. The Coptic Museum lies within the ruined walls of an ancient Roman fortress and offers insight into ancient Christianity in Egypt from the 5th through 7th centuries. The museum is open daily from 9:00AM to 9:00PM. More than a dozen ancient churches are also found here, including the Church of the Virgin – one portion of which is said to date back to the 4th century – and the churches of St. Sergius and St. Bacchus, St. Barbara, St. Cyril and St. John. Within the ancient Roman walls, the Ben Ezra Synagogue – one of 29 in the city – was originally, more than a thousand years ago, a church dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel. In the late 19th century a magnificent collection of some 350,000 medieval documents from Cairo’s ancient Sephardic community was discovered in the synagogue’s geniza (sacred storeroom). Now known as the Cairo Geniza and archived in several museums around the world, it is perhaps the largest and most significant collection of medieval manuscripts in the world. The synagogue is open daily from 9:00AM to 4:00PM.

The Citadel is the fascinating medieval quarter of the bustling capital. It was built in the 12th century with the intent of enclosing the ancient city entirely within defensive walls. From 1218 until the completion of the Abdeen Palace more than six centuries later, the Citadel was the seat of power and government for all of Egypt’s rulers. The Citadel offers commanding views of Cairo and a number of interesting sites within its enclosure, including the grand Muhammad Ali Mosque built in the 19th century and now visible from nearly any point in the city below. The Mosque and other buildings within the Citadel are open daily from 8:00AM to 5:00PM, with mosques closed during Friday prayers.

Memphis lies about 15 miles from Cairo on the western bank of the Nile at the edge of the imposing western desert. It was founded in about 3100 BC by the first king of the 1st Dynasty and is regarded as one of the most important of the cities which pre-date Cairo. The beautifully carved Alabaster Sphinx, the enormous limestone Colossus of Ramses II and other ancient temples and ruins are open to the public as part of the Mit Rahina open air museum daily from 9:00AM to 5:00PM.

Sakkara, a short distance west of Memphis, is dominated by the imposing Step Pyramid of Zoser built during the 3rd Dynasty (ca. 2668-2649 BC). This is the oldest of Egypt’s great pyramids and the first great monument in the world to be built of stone. Nearby are the Tombs of Mareruka and Kagemni which date to approximately 2300 BC. Although not grand from the outside, the interiors are adorned with some of the finest tomb relief carvings of the Old Kingdom, depicting life of ancient nobility including hunting, horticulture, husbandry, music and dancing. The Sakkara necropolis is open daily from 8:00AM to 5:00PM and includes admission to the area, its various pyramids and tombs, and a museum; separate admission required for several tombs.

The Pyramids of Giza dominate the arid desert plain northwest of Memphis and Sakkara. These familiar iconic structures are truly breathtaking in sheer size and elegant proportion when seen in person. The Great Pyramid of Khufu was built from more than 2 million stone blocks averaging 2.5 tons each. The Great Pyramid towers nearly 500 feet above the sands. The Giza plateau is open daily from 8:00AM to 5:00PM and includes admission to the area and its various pyramids and tombs; separate (and limited in number) admission required for the interior of the Great Pyramid, where photography is forbidden .

Nearby, the Solar Boat Museum exhibits a marvelously reconstructed river barge that was excavated more than six decades ago. It was found completely dismantled, with archaeologists divided over its intended use – and why it was dismantled. The museum is open daily from 8:30AM to 4:00PM, closing at 3:00PM during Ramadan.

Along The Nile River
The Nile has long been the heart of Egypt – a fertile, life-supporting ribbon in an arid land. A cruise along this mystical, legendary waterway is a fabulous way to explore Egypt’s splendid ancient monuments and cities of antiquity.

Thebes was the glorious capital of the New Kingdom (1570 to 1070 BC). As Thebes gained power over other cities, Amun – a local god – assumed the qualities and importance of Ra – the powerful sun god – and became known as Amun-Ra, the preeminent god over all the many other deities of ancient Egypt. During the ascendancy of Amun-Ra, the pharaohs constructed numerous temples and tombs, each more magnificent than the one before. The result is a breathtaking concentration of ancient imperial monuments, two of which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Temple of Karnak and the Luxor Temple.

The Temple of Karnak is one of the most spectacular sites of the ancient world. Dedicated to Amun-Ra, this enormous temple complex includes 10 imposing pylons, large courtyards, the inner sanctuary, the impressive Avenue of Sphinxes and the Sacred Lake. The Hypostyle Hall alone, completed by Ramesses II in the 12th century BC, covers more than 50,000 square feet. It is supported by more than 130 columns and is reputed to be the largest temple hall anywhere in the world. There were earlier temples to Amun-Ra on this site, but the origins of the structures seen today are attributed to the pharaohs of the 18th and 19th Dynasties, who elevated Amun-Ra to the preeminent position as the god of the empire. Even after the capital moved north to the Nile Delta and Thebes diminished in power, the Temple of Karnak continued to be enlarged and embellished by succeeding generations of rulers.

The Luxor Temple is a long and narrow complex in the center of the city of Luxor, connected to the Temple of Karnak by the nearly 2-mile long Avenue of the Sphinxes. Unlike the Karnak complex which developed and grew over succeeding generations, the Luxor Temple was constructed primarily during the reigns of Amenhotep III and Ramesses II in the 14th century BC. Additional construction, some of it quite significant, was undertaken by Tutankhamen, Ramesses II and others, including as recently as the 3rd century BC by Alexander the Great. The walls of Luxor are embellished with skillful carvings of the gods of Karnak accompanied by a festival procession of priests, musicians, dancers and sacred cows. Excavation of the site in the late 19th century left intact a medieval mosque at the northern end of the complex. Today, the Abu el-Haggag mosque stands above the excavated ruins of Luxor Temple.

The Valley of the Kings is situated on the west bank of the Nile across from Luxor. Here, the pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty (1550-1295 BC) abandoned the pyramid tradition in favor of tombs carved deep into the mountainside. Of the 63 known tombs in the valley – 26 carved for kings – 15 are currently open to the public. Separate admission required for the tombs of Ramesses VI, Tutankhamun and Ay. The nearby Valley of the Queens has around 90 tombs belonging to queens and other royal officials of the 18th Dynasty. The tomb of Queen Nefertari is considered among the most beautiful tombs in Egypt but is closed to the public at present following extensive restoration of its fragile contents. Three other well-preserved tombs in the valley remain open to the public.

The famed Colossi of Memnon stand like guards along the road to the Valleys of the Kings and Queens. These impressive statues of Amenhotep III, towering 75 feet, are virtually all that remain of his funerary temple which stood nearby. Not to be outdone by their rulers, there is also a Valley of the Nobles where more than four hundred scribes and dignitaries of the royal courts are buried. Unlike the much larger tombs of the pharaohs, these sites are embellished with fascinating depictions of ordinary daily life – farming, fishing and the feasts & celebrations of the nobles and their families.

The rulers buried in these valleys sometimes constructed a mortuary temple at the edge of the valley some distance away from the actual tomb, but only a handful of these remain, including the spectacular Temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahari, almost directly opposite the Temple of Karnak in Luxor. Queen Hatshepsut reigned for more than a dozen years in the 14th century BC. Unlike the other funerary temples here, her temple is built in a natural amphitheater set against the mountains and partially hollowed out of the rocks. The temple’s design appears strikingly modern with three simple and elegant colonnade terraces connected by gracefully proportioned sloping ramps.

The Temple of Horus in Kom Ombo is actually dedicated to both Horus, the powerful falcon-headed sun god, and to Sobek the Ptolemaic crocodile god. This unusual dual-deity temple has two sanctuaries, one for Horus and the second for Sobek. To the north, Edfu’s Temple of Horus dates to the 2nd century BC and is one of the best preserved in all of Egypt, with its great pylon, exterior walls, courts, halls and sanctuary all virtually intact. The carvings that adorn the Edfu temple are marvelous depictions ancient mythology.

Completed in 1972, the High Dam at Aswan is a marvel of modern Egyptian engineering – more than 2 miles wide and 300 feet high. The waters of Lake Nasser stretch for nearly 500 miles into neighboring Sudan and the benefits of the dam have been profound: hydroelectricity for new industry and enough water to bring agricultural development to millions of acres of formerly uncultivated land.

On an island just south of Aswan, the Temple of Philae is dedicated to the goddess Isis. This magnificent complex, rescued from the rising waters of the High Dam, features impressive colonnades, towering pylons and beautifully carved columns. Nearby in a large quarry, the Unfinished Obelisk can be seen, still attached to the bedrock and offering insight into the ancient ingenuity and skill that allowed the creation of these monumental structures – now seen in Paris, Istanbul, Rome and other cities.

About the Temples of Abu Simbel
Nubia is an arid region in southern Egypt, along the Sudanese border. In ancient times, Nubia was a vital link between Egypt and the rest of Africa. Today, much of the land lies under the waters of the Aswan High Dam Reservoir. In the decade from 1960 to 1970, monumental rescue efforts saved many of Nubia’s ancient monuments from the rising waters, including more than 20 temples. Most spectacular, perhaps, are the two temples of Abu Simbel that were built during the 19th Dynasty (ca. 1304-1237 BC). The international rescue operation to move the famous Temple of Ramesses II is an extraordinary story in itself. This engineering feat to raise the Temple more than 200 feet higher was so successful, in fact, that twice a year on February 22nd and October 22nd, the rays of the rising sun pierce the entry and reaches deep into the heart of the temple just 24 hours later than the original plan. The façade of the Temple of Ramesses II features four enormous carvings of the young Ramesses II. The interior central hall is flanked by eight more statues of the pharaoh and decorated with amazing relief carvings depicting a great battle with more than a thousand carved figures. The Temple of Queen Nefertari, dedicated to the most beloved wife of Ramesses II, features large carved figures of Ramesses II, his wife and their children. The temples are open daily from 5:00AM to 5:00PM in the winter and until 6:00PM in the summer.
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